Ear, Nose and Throat

Contents :

What is ENT?

Otorhinolaryngology is one of the surgical subspecialties of medicine, focusing on ear, nose, and throat conditions. Simply put, this field is commonly known as ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) and doctors who specialize in this field are called Otorhinolaryngologists or ENT doctors. Some of the subspecialties of ENT are:

  • Head and Neck Surgery
  • Otology & Neurotology
  • Rhinology
  • Laryngology
  • Pediatrics
  • Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery (the surgical treatment of thyroid and parathyroid tumors)
  • Facial Plastic Surgery
  • Tonsillectomy

Head and Neck Surgery

This subspecialty includes surgeries such as: 

  • Parotidectomy. This surgical operation is done to remove the parotid gland (the biggest salivary gland). Parotidectomy is needed when there are tumors in the parotid gland. These tumors can either be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
  • Neck Dissection. If cancer cells migrate to the lymph nodes located on the sides of the neck, a neck dissection is needed. During this operation, the lymph nodes are removed.
  • Laryngectomy. This surgery is done to remove the larynx (voice box).

Otology & Neurotology

Otology is one of the branches of medicine which focuses on the ears, their anatomy, conditions, and treatments. Neurotolgy or neuro-otology is one of the sub-specialties of ENT, which studies the neurological conditions of the ear and how to treat them. Otology deals with conditions such as:

  • Hearing loss
  • Chronic ear infections
  • Cholesteatoma
  • Otosclerosis
  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Cochlear implants


 Rhinologists are doctors who have specialized in nose and sinus problems. Rhinology involves treating nasal polyps, chronic sinusitis and many other conditions. Rhinology includes procedures such as:

  • Rhinoplasty
  • Septoplasty
  • Turbinate surgery
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Nasal polyp removal

Rhinologists can work closely with ophthalmologists (eye doctors) to perform ‘endoscopic orbital surgeries’. Endoscopic orbital surgeries are done to treat conditions like ‘persistent tearing’. Rhinologists can also team up with neurosurgeons to treat nasal and skull base conditions like ‘skull base tumors’ or ‘nasal and sinus tumors’.


Larynx is commonly known as ‘the voice box’ and Laryngology is focused on treating voice disorders, airway and swallowing problems, and laryngeal (throat) cancer. Laryngology is a very inclusive specialty. Laryngologists deal with conditions like:

  • Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing)
  • Dysphonia (difficulty in speaking)
  • Thyroplasty (which is done to improve the voice)
  • Tracheostomy (which is done to allow air to enter the lungs)

The above-mentioned procedures are just few of the many procedures that laryngology includes.


Pediatrics is focused on taking care of infants, children, and adolescents. Sleep apnea and glue ear are two of the conditions that pediatricians deal with.


There are two oval-shaped tissue pads at the back of throat, called tonsils. Tonsillectomy is the surgical procedure to remove the tonsils in case they become infected or swollen. 


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